Notice of the State Council on Issuing the Action Outline for Promoting the Development of Big Data
- Document Number：No. 50  of the State Council
- Area of Law： State Organs Big Data Post and Telecommunications
- Level of Authority： Regulatory Documents of the State Council
- Date issued：08-31-2015
- Effective Date：08-31-2015
- Issuing Authority： State Council
- Status： Effective
Notice of the State
Council on Issuing the Action Outline for Promoting the Development of Big Data
(No. 50  of the State Council)
The people's governments of all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government; all ministries and commissions of the State Council; and all institutions directly under the State Council:
The Action Outline for Promoting the Development of Big Data is hereby issued to you for your conscientious compliance and implementation.
August 31, 2015
Action Outline for Promoting the Development of Big Data
Big data refers to data sets characterized by high volume, more varieties, high velocity, and high application value, and is rapidly developing into a new generation of information technology and service type for collection, storage, and correlation analysis of huge amounts of data from disparate sources and in various formats whereby we can discover new knowledge, create new value, and improve the capabilities.
The integration of information technologies with economy and society has led to a rapid growth of data. Data has become a basic strategic resource, and big data is increasingly having a significant impact on global production, circulation, distribution and consumption activities as well as the economic operation mechanism, social lifestyle, and the state's capacity in governance. At present, China has laid certain foundations for the development and application of big data with market advantages and development potential, but it is urgent to resolve such problems as inadequate opening and sharing of government data, weak industrial base, lack of top-level design and overall planning, the development lag of laws and regulations, and limited areas of innovation and application. This Action Outline is hereby developed for the purpose of effectively implementing the decisions and deployments of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, comprehensively promoting the development and application of big data in China, and accelerating the construction of a powerful data nation.
I. Recent developments and significance
Globally, the utilization of big data for promotion of economic development, improvement of social governance, and enhancement of governments' service and regulatory capacities is becoming a trend, and relevant developed countries have developed documents on the implementation of big data strategies to vigorously promote the development and application of big data. At present, China's Internet and mobile Internet users ranks first in the world, and China has rich data resources and application market advantages, and has made breakthroughs in the research and development of some key big data technologies. A group of innovative Internet enterprises and innovative applications have emerged. Some local governments have initiated the work related to big data. Adhering to innovation-driven growth, accelerating the deployment of big data, and deepening the application of big data have become internal needs and an inevitable choice for ensuring steady growth, promoting reform, adjusting structure, improving people's livelihood, and promoting the modernization of governance.
1. Big data becomes a new impetus to promote the economic development and transformation. Leading the technology flow, material flow, funds flow and talent flow via data flow will have profound impacts on the organizational model of the social division of work and cooperation, and promote the intensiveness and innovation of production and organizational modes. Big data promotes the network sharing, intensive integration, collaborative development, and efficient utilization of social production factors, and as a result, has changed the traditional mode of production and economic operational mechanism and significantly improved the level and efficiency of economic operation. Big data continuously inspires the innovation of business models and keeps creating new business types, and has become an important driving force in promoting added-value and innovative services and improving the core values of enterprises in the Internet and other emerging fields. The big data industry is becoming a new economic growth engine and will have significant impacts on the future patterns of the information industry.
2. Big data offers a new opportunity to reshape the competitive advantage of nations. Within the overall context of a rapid development of global information technology, big data has become an important fundamental strategic resource of nations and is leading a new round of scientific and technological innovation. Taking China's full advantage in data scale to synchronically improve the scale, quality, and application of data, and mine and release the potential value of data resources will be conducive to better playing the strategic role of data resources, enhancing protection capacity for cyberspace data sovereignty, safeguarding national security, and effectively improving China's national competitiveness.
3. Big data creates a new way of improving the governance system of the governments. The application of big data can reveal the correlation relationship that is difficult to be represented by traditional technologies and methods, advance the opening and sharing of government data, and promote the integration of data and resources of social cause, which will dramatically improve the whole data analytical capacity of the governments and provide new methods to effectively resolve complex social issues. The establishment of a management mechanism of “talking, decision-making, management and innovation based on data” and the realization of data-based scientific decision-making will promote progress in the management concept and social governance mode of the governments, accelerate the construction of an innovative, clean and service-oriented government ruled by law that is commensurate with the socialist market economy system and the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and gradually achieve the modernization of the governance capacity of the governments.
II. Guiding ideology and overall objectives
1. Guiding ideology. We shall thoroughly implement the guidelines of the spirit of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), and the Second, Third, and Fourth Plenary Sessions of the 18th CPC Central Committee, and according to the arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, allow the market to play a decisive role in allocating human resources, strengthen top-level design and overall coordination, vigorously promote the interconnection and open sharing of government information systems with public data, accelerate the integration of government information platforms, eliminate information silos, open data resources to the public, strengthen the government's credibility, guide social development, and serve public enterprises. We shall take enterprises as market players, create a relaxed and fair environment, intensify the research and development of key big data technologies, industry development and talent training, accelerate data collection and mining, deepen big data innovation and application in various industries, and promote the healthy development of the big data industry. The legal and standard systems will be improved to utilize big data in a scientific and standardized manner and effectively protect data security. By promoting big data development, we will accelerate the construction of a a powerful data nation, release technology dividends, institutional dividends, and innovation dividends, improve the governance capacity of governments, and promote economic restructuring and upgrading.
2. Overall objectives. Based on China's nation situations and actual needs, the following objectives in the development and application of big data are expected to be promoted to be gradually achieved in the upcoming five to ten years:
To create a new mode of social governance with precise management and multi-dimensional cooperation. Big data will be used as an important means to enhance the governance capacity, and through the efficient collection, effective integration, and further application of government data and social data, to improve the government's decision-making and risk prevention capacities, enhance the accuracy and effectiveness of social governance, and strengthen rural society governance; provide assistance in the streamlining of administrative procedures and decentralization of powers, support the transformation from pre-approval to interim and ex post regulation, and promote the commercial system reform; promote the dynamic integration of government supervision and social supervision, and effectively mobilize social forces to actively participate in social governance. By the end of 2017, data resources are expected to be shared across government departments.
To establish a new mechanism for the smooth, safe and efficient functioning of the economy. Big data will be fully utilized to continuously improve the access to and use of data resources in areas such as credit, finance, banking, taxation, agriculture, statistics, import and export, resources and environment, product quality, and business registration, enrich the data sources of economic statistics, achieve more accurate monitoring, analysis, forecasting, early warning of economic operation, improve the pertinence, science, and timeliness of decision-making, improve macro-control and administrative efficiency in terms of industrial development, credit system, and market supervision, ensure a supply and demand balance, and keep the smooth functioning of the economy.
To build a new people-oriented system serving people's livelihood and benefiting all citizens. With the focus on the construction of a service-oriented government, the application of big data shall be promoted comprehensively in such fields as public utilities, municipal administration, urban and rural environment, rural life, health care, disaster relief, social assistance, elderly care services, employment, social security, culture and education, transportation and tourism, quality safety, protection of consumer rights, and community services. Big data will be utilized to provide insight into people's needs, optimize the allocation of resources, enrich services, increase service channels, expand the scope of services, improve service quality, enhance a city's ripple-effect capacity, promote public services to be provided at the basic levels, narrow the gap between urban and rural areas as well as regional disparities, promote the formation of a fair, inclusive, convenient, and efficient system serving people's livelihood, and continuously meet the people's increasingly personalized and diversified needs.
To create a new innovation-driven pattern of business startups and innovations from all walks of life. Legal and policy systems for the opening and sharing of public data resources in a reasonable and moderate manner will be developed, and a national unified open platform for government data will be established by the end of 2018 to make public data resources available to the public in a reasonable and moderate manner first in such major fields as credit, transportation, medical care, health, employment, social security, geography, culture, education, science and technology, resources, agriculture, environment, safety supervision, finance, quality, statistics, meteorology, oceanography, and registration and supervision of enterprises, so as drive the public to conduct value-added, non-profit big data development and innovative applications, fully release dividends from data, and inspire the vitality of business startups and innovations from all walks of life.
To cultivate a high-end, smart, emerging, prosperous new ecosystem for industry development. The integrated development of big data and cloud computing, the Internet of things, mobile Internet, and other new generation of information technology will be promoted, new industry types and new modes of coordinated development of big data and traditional industries will be explored, the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries and the growth of emerging industries will be promoted, and new economic growth points will be created. A group of products, systems, and solutions that meet the needs of major big data applications shall be developed, and a secure and reliable big data technology system will be established. Big data products and services will reach the international advanced standards with significantly increased domestic market share. A group of globally oriented backbone enterprises and innovative small- and medium-sized enterprises with distinctive features will be cultivated. A big data industry ecosystem with multi-lateral interconnection and coordinated development of governments, enterprises, universities, and research institutions will be built.
III Main Tasks
1. Accelerating the opening and sharing of government data, promoting the integration of resources, and enhancing the governance capacity.
(1) Vigorously promoting the data sharing of government departments. Top-level design and overall planning shall be strengthened, and the scope and use method of data sharing between departments shall be specified, and the duties and rights of data management and sharing of each department shall be clarified. By relying on an unified government data exchange and sharing platform, the cross-departmental and cross-regional sharing of basic national data resources including the national population basic information database, the legal person information resource database, and the natural resources and geo-spatial information database, as well as information systems of taxation administration, customs, finance management, audit, public security, macro economy, social security, land resources, agriculture, water resources, and quality supervision, inspection and quarantine, etc. shall be vigorously promoted. The interconnection and information sharing of the credit information systems of all regions, departments, relevant enterprises and public institutions, and social organizations shall be accelerated, rich credit information services shall be provided to the public, and the government service and regulatory level shall be improved. In light of the implementation of the project of benefiting people with information technologies and the construction of smart cities, central departments and local governments shall be promoted to work together to jointly launch pilot programs and achieve the data sharing, and institutional integration, collaboration, and cooperation in public services.
(2) Steadily promoting the opening of public data resources. Under the premise that security guarantee and privacy protection are strengthened in accordance with the law, the opening of public data resources shall be steadily promoted. The establishment of a list of data resources of government departments, public institutions and other public agencies shall be promoted, and according to the mode of “conducing pilot programs in the increment of data,” the national overall management of government department data shall be strengthened, and the building of a unified, open national government data platform shall be accelerated. The plan for opening data from public agencies shall be developed, the responsibilities for opening and maintenance of the data shall be effectively fulfilled, the data resources from public agencies shall promoted to be aggregated in a unified manner and be made available to the public, standardization in the opening and sharing of government data shall be enhanced, and government data sets shall be made available to the public first in fields relating to guaranteeing and serving people's livelihood, including credit, transportation, medical care, health, employment, social security, geography, culture, education, science and technology, resources, agriculture, environment, safety supervision, finance, quality, statistics, meteorology, oceanography, and business registration and supervision. A big data collection mechanism through interaction between government and private databases shall be established, and the catalogue of government data to be shared and opened shall be developed. Through the disclosure and sharing of government data, enterprises, industry associations, research institutions, and social organizations, among others, shall be guided in taking the initiative to collect and open data.
Column 1 Government Data Resources Sharing and Opening Project
Promoting the sharing of government data resources. The measures for the sharing administration of government data resources shall be developed, the public data resources from government departments shall be integrated, interconnection shall be promoted, sharing capabilities shall be improved, and the consistency and accuracy of the government data shall be improved. Before the end of 2017, the scope and use method of sharing between departments shall be specified, and a pattern of cross-departmental sharing of data resources shall be basically formed.
Establishing a unified government data exchange and sharing platform. The unified national e-government network shall be fully utilized to build a unified government data exchange and sharing platform across departments. By 2018, a unified data exchange and sharing platform shall fully cover the central government departments to realize data sharing and exchange between the information systems of taxation administration, customs, finance management, audit, public security, macro economy, social security, land resources, agriculture, water resources, and quality supervision, inspection, and quarantine, among others, through the unified platform.
Establishing a national unified government data open platform. A list of data resources of government departments, public institutions and other public institutions shall be established, the standards for the opening and sharing of government data shall be developed and implemented, and the plan for the opening of data shall be developed. Before the end of 2018, a national unified government data open platform shall be completely established. Before the end of 2020, government data sets shall be gradually made available to the public in fields relating to guaranteeing and serving people's livelihood, including credit, transportation, medical care, health, employment, social security, geography, culture, education, science and technology, resources, agriculture, environment, safety supervision, finance, quality, statistics, meteorology, oceanography, and registration and supervision of enterprises.
(3) Making overall planning for the construction of big data infrastructure. In light of the plan for the construction of the national government information technology project, overall planning for government data resources and social data resources shall be made, and the national big data platform, data centers and other infrastructures shall be established. The improvement of basic national data resources including the national population basic information database, the legal person information resource database, and the natural resources and geo-spatial information database as well as information resources in such major fields as health, employment, social security, energy, credit, statistics, quality, land resources, agriculture, urban and rural development, and registration and supervision of enterprises shall be accelerated. The aggregation, integration and correlation analysis associated with social big data shall be strengthened.
The application of big data in economic mobilization shall be promoted. The sharing of information resources used for military and civil purposes shall be strengthened. The existing data resources and platform facilities oft enterprises, governments and other entities shall be fully utilized, attention shall be paid to the transformation and utilization of existing data center centers and server resources, and environment-friendly, low-cost, efficient, cloud-based big data infrastructures as well as data aggregation platforms for different regions and industries shall be established, so as to avoid overlapping projects or unwise investment. The backup and protection of major data resources on the Internet shall be strengthened.
Column 2 Dig Data Resources Overall Development Project
Integrating various types of government information platforms and information systems. The building of new platforms shall be strictly controlled, and based on existing platform resources, the e-government data service platform and the information service platform for benefiting people's livelihood shall be built in a centralized and uniform manner and uniformly apply to the neighborhoods and communities at the basic level and gradually extend to rural areas, particularly rural communities. Unless otherwise prescribed by the State Council, any isolated new information platform or information system to be built by the relevant departments or the governments below the prefecture level shall no longer be approved. By 2018, a unified e-government data service platform shall be formed at the central level; in the cities covered by the national pilot program for benefiting people's livelihood through information technology, the centralized collection and multi-use of basic information will be realized, and public services and social information services will fully cover the local population, with the requests for such services accepted on a 24/7 basis and under the “one-stop” handling procedures.
Integrating the resources of dispersed data centers. The resources of existing public and private data centers shall be fully used, and those small-scale, dispersed data centers with low efficiency and high energy consumption shall be integrated by use of cloud computing technology, so as to build and form a government data center system with reasonable layout, proper scale, strong guarantee, energy saving and intensive use. The role of those completely-built data centers of all departments shall be maximized in an overall manner, and the building of new data centers shall be strictly controlled. By the conducting of local pilot programs, the construction of Guizhou Big Data Comprehensive Pilot Zone and other big data comprehensive pilot zones shall be advanced, and the integration of regional big data infrastructures and the aggregation and application of data resources shall be promoted.
Accelerating the improvement of the national basic information resource system. The building of basic national information resources including the national population basic information database, the legal person information resource database, and the natural resources and geo-spatial information database shall be accelerated, and by relying on existing relevant information systems, information resources in such major fields as health, employment, social security, energy, credit, statistics, quality, land resources, agriculture, urban and rural development, and registration and supervision of enterprises shall be gradually improved. By 2018, basic national information resource systems including the national population basic information database, the legal person information resource database, and the natural resources and geo-spatial information database, which are shared and verified across departments, shall be basically built to achieve the aggregation, integration, and associated application of information resources in various fields.
Strengthening the collection and use of Internet information. Top-level design shall be strengthened, an international perspective shall be strengthened, existing resources shall be utilized, the capabilities of collecting, storing, and analyzing Internet information shall be strengthened, relevant laws and regulations on the storage of Internet information shall be developed and improved, and the Internet information storage and information service system shall be built.
(4) Providing support to the scientific level of macroeconomic regulation and control. The national macro-control data system shall be established, relevant statistical indicators and data shall be released in a timely manner, the utilization of Internet data resources and the provision of information services shall be reinforced, and the correlation analysis, integration and utilization of government data resources shall be strengthened, so as to provide information support for the governments to conduct dynamic monitoring, forecasting and early warning of industrial security, and analysis and decision-making of the development mode transformation in such fields as finance, taxation, audit, statistics, agriculture, planning, consumption, investment, import and export, urban and rural development, employment, income distribution, power and industrial operation, quality safety, and energy conservation and emission reduction, and improve the scientific level, predictability and effectiveness of macroeconomic regulation and control.
(5) Promoting precise governance. In such fields as enterprise supervision, quality safety, energy conservation and consumption reduction, environmental protection, food safety, work safety, building of credit system, and tourism services, relevant government departments and enterprises shall be promoted to aggregate, integrate and conduct a correlation analysis of data on market supervision, inspection and testing, illegal and dishonest acts, enterprises' production and trading, sales and logistics, complaints and reporting, and protection of consumer rights. The enterprise credit information shall be uniformly published, early warnings shall be given for enterprises' misconduct, the government's decision-making and risk prevention capacity shall be improved, interim and ex post supervision and services shall be supported and strengthened, and the pertinence and effectiveness of supervision and services shall be improved. The improvement of government management and public governance modes shall be promoted, the transparent management of the governments based on negative lists, power lists, and responsibility lists shall be realized by big data, the big data supervision and technical anti-corruption system shall be improved, and the governments shall be promoted to further streamline the administrative procedures, delegate powers to lower levels, and administer according to the law.
(6) Promoting the facilitation of commercial services. The establishment of a unified social credit code system for citizens, legal persons, and other organizations shall be accelerated, and by relying on a national unified platform for the sharing and exchange of credit information, the enterprise credit information publication system and the website of “Credit China” shall be built, so as to share and integrate credit information in all regions and fields and provide the public with one-stop services for access to various types of credit information such as registration, administrative licensing, and administrative punishment. In the full implementation of the reform of “Three (Tax Registration Certificate, Industrial and Commercial Business License and Organization Code Certificate) in One” and “one code for one license” registration system, big data shall be actively used as a means to simplify handling procedures. A joint approval platform for projects shall be established, and an online approval big data resource database shall be created, so as to realize unified acceptance, synchronous examination, information sharing, transparency and openness in the approval, confirmation and recordation of projects across departments and levels. Government departments shall be encouraged to efficiently collect, effectively integrate, and fully utilize government data and social data to understand the needs of enterprises, promote the optimization and reengineering of administrative processes, and provide more convenient, effective, and targeted services in registration, market access and other commercial services. By such means as big data, the operation of micro, small and medium enterprises, especially that of newly-formed micro and small enterprises, shall be closely followed up to provide support for the improvement of related policies.
(7) Promoting the efficiency of security guarantee. The flow of relevant data between law enforcement departments shall be strengthened, and under the premise that it is permitted by law and the safety is guaranteed, the collection, mining and correlation analysis of data in the fields relating to social governance shall be strengthened, the data support for proper response to and handling of major public emergencies shall be increased, the public security guarantee capability shall be enhanced, the establishment of a public security system with intelligent prevention and control and comprehensive treatment shall be promoted, and national security and social stability shall be safeguarded.
Column 3 Big Data Projects for Government Governance
Promoting the application of big data in the decision-making support, risk warning and enforcement supervision of macroeconomic regulation. Government and social data resources shall be utilized in an overall manner to explore and establish a national big data application system for the decision-making support, risk warning and enforcement supervision of macroeconomic regulation. By 2018, the pilot program for development and utilization of big data through public-private cooperation shall be conducted, and the mechanism for collection and utilization of data relating to national economy in such fields as finance, taxation, audit, statistics, agriculture, planning, consumption, investment, import and export, urban and rural development, employment, income distribution, power and industrial operation, quality safety, and energy conservation and emission reduction shall be improved, and the governments at all levels shall be promoted to conduct data collection and comprehensive utilization of such data according the unified system, so as to strengthen the support for the macroeconomic regulation policies.
Promoting the building of the credit information sharing mechanism and the credit information system. The establishment of a unified social credit code system shall be accelerated, and the credit information sharing and exchange mechanism shall be established. Information resources from all sectors of society shall be fully utilized, the aggregation and integration of public credit data and data from the Internet, mobile Internet and e-commerce, among others, shall be promoted, and Internet companies shall be encouraged to use big data technology to establish market-oriented platforms for the sharing of third-party credit information, so as to maximize the authority of the government-led credit system and the scale effects of the Internet big data-based credit investigation platform; and by relying on a national unified credit information sharing and exchange platform, an enterprise credit information publication system shall be built, the sharing of basic credit information on the governments at all levels and various credit subjects shall be realized, and a social credit system shall have been preliminarily established, so as to provide the efficient functioning of the economy with the basic credit information services that are comprehensive and accurate.
Building a big data application system for social governance. By 2018, based on the implementation of major strategic plans and main functional zoning plans such as the coordinated development of regions and the new urbanization, a group of pilot programs for application of big data shall be conducted in such fields as enterprise supervision, quality safety, quality integrity, energy conservation and consumption reduction, environmental protection, food safety, work safety, building of credit system and tourism services, and the data barriers between government departments, enterprises and public institutions shall be broken down, so as to realize the joint development and comprehensive utilization of big data applications. The data from government departments, enterprises, and public institutions on market supervision, inspection and testing, illegal and dishonest acts, enterprises' production and trading, sales and logistics, complaints, and protection of consumer rights, among others, shall be collected in real time and analyzed on a consolidated basis, and the social governance capacity of the governments at all levels shall be effectively promoted.
(8) Accelerating progress towards benefiting people through services for people's livelihood. In light of the new urbanization development, the implementation of the project of benefiting people with information technology, and the construction of smart cities, and with focus on the optimization and improvement of services for people's livelihood, facilitation of social vitality, and promotion of market-oriented big data application services, enterprises and social organizations shall be guiding and encouraged in conducting research on innovative applications, further mining data on public services, conducting big data application demonstration projects in such fields as urban-rural development, living environment, health care, social assistance, pension services, employment, social security, quality safety, culture and education, transportation and tourism, protection of consumer rights, and community services, promoting the aggregation and integration of data in traditional public services and data on the Internet, mobile Internet and wearable devices, developing various types of applications convenient for people, optimizing the allocation of public resources, and improving the level of public services.
Column 4 Big Data Projects for Public Services
Big data on medical health services. Databases of electronic health records and electronic medical records shall be built, and a big data application system for medical health management and services that covers public health, medical services, medical insurance, drug supply, family planning and comprehensive management services shall be established. The services of doctor appointments, hierarchical diagnosis and treatment, long-distance medical services, test result sharing, combination of prevention and treatment, combination of medical care and support, health counseling, etc. shall be explored for the development and optimization of a regulated medical care process featuring inclusiveness and mutual trust. Encourage and regulate the research regarding innovative applications of healthcare big data as well as the development of integrated healthcare service applications carried out by the relevant enterprises and public institutions.
Big data on social security services. A unified big data platform for social assistance, social welfare, and social security that extends from cities to rural areas shall be built, the connection of data and the sharing of information between the social security departments and relevant departments shall be strengthened, and the application of big data in such aspects as labor and employment and supervision over social security funds, monitoring of medical services through medical insurance, labor security supervision, internal audit, and formulation of relevant human resources and social security policies and follow-up evaluation of the implementation results thereof shall be supported. Big data shall be utilized to innovate on service modes to provide the public with more personalized and targeted services.
Big data on education and culture. The public service platform for education management shall be improved to facilitate the concurrent collection of basic data on education and the national interconnection and sharing of such data. A basic database for the school-age population at various stages, a basic student information database, and lifelong electronic school enrollment archives shall be established to vertically connect students' school enrollment archives through different stages of education. The formation of a cloud service system for educational resources that covers nationwide, provide collaborative services, and connects all networks shall be promoted. Exploration shall be made to maximize the supporting role of big data in the reform of educational methods, the promotion of equity in education, and the enhancement of education quality. The construction of digital libraries, archives, museums, art galleries, cultural centers and other public-interest facilities shall be strengthened, and comprehensive service platforms for big data on cultural communication shall be built, so as to spread Chinese culture and provide the society with cultural services.
Big data on transportation and tourism. Exploration shall be made to integrate and make collaborative innovation of cross-departmental and cross-regional data in such fields as transportation, public security, weather, safety supervision, earthquakes, surveying, and mapping. A comprehensive transportation service big data platform shall be established to jointly utilize big data to enhance the collaborative management and public service capacity, actively attract social quality resources, and utilize big traffic data to provide travel information services, traffic guidance and other value-added services. An all-media interactive center for tourist complaints and tourism evaluation shall be established, and the monitoring, early warning, and timely diversion and dispersion of the tourist traffic in tourist cities and major tourist attractions shall be realized, so as to provide strong support for the regulation of the market order, facilitation of the travel of tourists, improvement of the quality of tourism services, promotion of tourism consumption, and restructuring and upgrading of the tourism industry.
2. Promoting the innovative development of industries, cultivating new industry types, and promoting economic restructuring
(1) Developing big data on the manufacturing industry. The application of big data in all aspects of the product full life cycle and the whole process of industry chain including the research and development of industrial design, production, business operation and management, marketing, and after-sales services shall be promoted. User needs shall be analyzed and perceived, the added value of products shall be enhanced, and intelligent plants shall be created. The platforms for the aggregation, analysis and application of industry big data that are targeted at different industries and links shall be established. The opportunity of cross-boundary integration of the Internet shall be seized to promote the integrated application of big data, internet of things, cloud computing, three-dimensional (3D) printing technology, customization, and other new technologies in the whole industry chain as well as the change of manufacturing modes and industrial restructuring and upgrading.
(2) Developing big data on emerging industries. New industry types such as Internet finance, data services, data mining, data chemistry, data materials and data pharmacy shall be vigorously cultivated. The collection, acquisition, analysis, and utilization capabilities of big data resources in related industries shall be enhanced. The potential of the data resources to support innovation shall be fully exploited. The innovation of the technology research and development system, change of management styles, innovation of business model, and reconstruction of the industry value chain system shall be promoted. The inter-disciplinary, multi-industry data integration and collaborative innovation shall be promoted. The development of strategic emerging industries, the innovative development of service sectors, and the expansion of information consumption shall be promoted. The new industry types and modes of collaborative development shall be explored and formed, and new economic growth points shall be cultivated.
Column 5 Big Data Projects for Manufacturing and Emerging Industries
Application of big data to the manufacturing industry. Big data shall be utilized to promote the deep integration of informationization and industrialization; research shall be conducted to promote the application of big data in all links of the industry chain including research and development, design, production, business management, marketing, and after-sales services; big data analysis and application platforms for different industries and different links shall be researched and developed; typical enterprises, key industries, and key regions shall be selected to conduct pilot programs for the application of big data to manufacturing enterprises; and the manufacturing industry shall be actively promoted towards becoming a networked and intelligent industry.
Applying big data to the service industry. Big data shall be utilized to support brand building, product positioning, precise marketing, certification and accreditation, quality credit enhancement and customized services, among others, and big data solutions for the service industry shall be researched and developed to expand the scope of services, enhance service capabilities, improve service quality; the innovation in business models, service contents, and service forms shall be encouraged.
Cultivating new business types of data application. Actively promote the aggregation of big data from different industries, and the integration of the big data industry with other industries, and Internet finance, data services, and data processing and analysis, data applications in terms of films and television, mineral prospecting, chemistry, materials, and pharmaceutical manufacturing, and other new business types shall be vigorously cultivated.
Applying big data to e-commerce. The application of big data to e-commerce shall be promoted, and the big data resources generated from e-commerce processes shall be fully utilized to provide market regulation and control services for the governments; e-commerce enterprises shall submit their data to the governments in accordance with the law.
(3) Developing big data on agriculture and rural areas. A comprehensive information service system for agriculture and rural areas shall be built to provide farmers with comprehensive, efficient, and convenient information services, narrow the urban-rural digital divide, and promote the integrated development of urban and rural areas. The construction of big economic data on agriculture and rural areas shall be strengthened, the collection, transmission, and sharing infrastructures of the relevant data from villages and counties shall be improved, and a collection, computation, application, and service system for agricultural and rural data shall be established, the ecological environment governance of rural areas shall be reinforced, and the rural social governance capacity shall be enhanced. Domestic and international agricultural data resources shall be coordinated in an overall manner, and the accumulated utilization of the data on key agricultural resource factors shall be reinforced, so as to enhance forecasting and early warning capabilities. National agriculture-related big data centers shall be integrated and developed, the sharing and opening of agriculture-related data resources among various regions, industries, and fields shall be promoted, and the mining and utilization of such data resources shall be strengthened. The research and development of key agricultural big data technologies shall be accelerated, and the demonstration shall be reinforced so as to improve the capabilities and levels of production intelligence, networked operation, efficient management, and provision of convenient services.
Column 6 Big Data Projects for Modern Agriculture
Comprehensive information services for agriculture and rural areas. Existing data resources shall be fully utilized to improve the collection and sharing functions of the relevant data, improve the data collection and information publication functions at village-level stations that bring information to villages and households, built data survey and analysis systems engineering regarding data on the global production, consumption, storage, import and export, prices, and costs of agricultural products, develop an integrated information service platform for agriculture and rural areas covering agricultural production, business operation, management, service, and rural environment management which integrates public services, public convenience services, e-commerce, and network services, so as to provide comprehensive, efficient, and convenience information services for agriculture, rural areas, and the production and life of rural residents; step up the efforts of global agricultural survey and analysis to help guide domestic production and consumption of agricultural products and improve the pricing mechanism for agricultural products to reduce the urban-rural digital divide and promote the integrated development of urban and rural areas.
Sharing of data on key agricultural resource factors. The Internet of Things, cloud computing, and satellite remote sensing and other technologies shall be utilized to establish a data monitoring system for key resources factors such as China's arable land, grassland, forest, water conservancy facilities, water resources, agricultural facilities and equipment, new types of business operators, agricultural workforce, and financial capital, promote the sharing of agricultural information including environmental, meteorological, and ecological information, build data sharing platforms for key agricultural resource factors, provide agricultural resource data query services for governments at all levels, enterprises, and farmers, and encourage various market players to fully mine the data on the platforms for the development of services such as soil testing and formula fertilization, unified prevention and control, and agricultural insurance.
Agricultural product quality safety information services. Efforts shall be made to establish mechanisms for the sharing of the production data of agricultural products in such aspects as ecological environment, production materials, production processes, market circulation, processing and storage, testing and inspection, promote the automatic collection, network transmission, standardized processing, and visualized application of data, improve the authenticity, accuracy , timeliness, and relevance of data, achieve interconnection and sharing with agricultural e-commerce platforms and other agricultural product trading platforms, ensure that that all information may be searched, sources and whereabouts are traceable, and responsible persons may be held accountable, and provide agricultural product quality safety information services for producers, consumers, and regulators to promote the consumption safety of agricultural products.
(4) Developing big data on innovations from all walks of life. By adapting to the national innovation-driven development strategy, a big data innovation action plan shall be implemented, and enterprises and the public shall be encouraged to explore and utilize open data resources, inspire the vitality of innovation and entrepreneurial energy, promote the deep integration of the innovation chain with the industrial chain, advance the effective combination of big data development and scientific research and innovation, so as to create new big data-driven research and innovation modes, open the channels between technological innovation and economic and social development, and promote innovations from all walks of life, open innovations, and joint innovations.
Column 7 Big Data Projects for Innovations from All Walks of Life
Innovating in the application of big data. By such means as innovative application development competitions, service outsourcing, social crowd sourcing, incentive plans, grants and awards, application training, enterprises and the public shall be encouraged to mine and utilize open data resources and inspire the vitality of innovation and entrepreneurship.
Innovating in big data services. A group of big data products for public services shall be researched and developed to meet the need of economic and social development and achieve the integration of big data from different industries and fields to expand the scope of services and improve service capability.
Developing big data on science. The gradual opening and sharing of science data acquired and generated in non-profit scientific research activities supported by the public finance of the state shall be actively promoted and major national science big data infrastructures shall be built to achieve the authoritative collection, long-term storage, integrated management, and full-scale sharing of the national important science and technology data. Based on the need of economic and social development, a big science data application service center shall be developed in support of resolving the major issues of economic and social development and national security.
Applying big data to knowledge services. Big data, cloud computing, and other technologies shall be utilized in a large-scale integration of knowledge in various fields to build a knowledge resource database group with clear levels, full coverage, and accurate contents, establish a national knowledge service platform and a knowledge resource service center, and form a rationally distributed and interconnected national knowledge service system which is centered on the national platforms, supported by industrial platforms, and covers the main fields of the national economy, so as to provide accurate and high-level knowledge services for production and livelihood. Improve China's knowledge resource production and supply capacity.
(5) Advancing fundamental research and making breakthroughs for core technologies. Based on major fundamental research on the theoretical system of data science, big data computing system and analysis theory, and exploration of big data-driven disruptive application models, a forward-looking layout shall be planned, research on data science shall be conducted, and exploration in such aspects as big data theories, methods and key applications and technologies shall be guided and encouraged. By adopting the collaborative innovation mode with a connection between governments, enterprises, universities and research institutions and the open source-based open innovation model, breakthroughs for difficulties in key technologies such as the storage of massive data, data cleaning, data analysis and mining, data visualization, information security and privacy protection shall be strengthened to form a secure and reliable big data technology system. Innovation in artificial intelligence technologies such as natural language understanding, machine learning, and deep learning shall be supported, and the data analysis and processing capability, knowledge discovery capability and decision support capability shall be enhanced.
(6) Creating a system of big data products. Based on such aspects as the collection, sorting, analysis, mining, and application of data, support shall be provided to the development of software products such as large-scale common software for storage and management of massive data, big data analysis and mining software, data visualization software as well as hardware products such as massive data storage devices and big data all-in-one machines so as to drive the development of core basic information-technology products such as chips and operating systems and create a relatively sound system of big data products. The big data solutions deeply integrated with business processes and demands for application of data in key sectors or fields shall be vigorously developed.
Column 8 Research and Development and Industrialization Projects of Key Big Data Technologies and Products
Through the national science and technology plans (projects, or funds, etc.) that have been optimized and integrated, support shall be provided to the research and development of key big data technologies.
Strengthening basic research on big data. Mathematical sciences, computer science, social science and other applied sciences shall be integrated, and with the focus on research on the correlations and complex networks, the establishment of a data science system shall be explored; a new system for big data computing and a theory of big data analysis shall be researched, and breakthroughs for technical difficulties in the perception and processing of big data shall be made; exploration shall be made to establish a data science-driven industry application model for priority needs in networking, security, finance, biotechnology genomics, and health care, among others.
Increasing investment in the research and development of big data technologies and products. The research and development of technologies and products in such fields as data storage, sorting, analysis, processing and visualization, information security, and privacy protection shall be strengthened, and breakthroughs for technological difficulties encountered in critical aspects shall be made. By 2020, a group of software for processing, analysis and visualization of big data, hardware support platforms, and other internationally competitive products shall be created.
Enhancing the big data technology service capability. The deep integration of big data and various industry applications shall be promoted, a group of representative application cases shall be formed, the research and development of big data technologies and products shall be driven by the application of big data, and sophisticated big data solutions for various industries shall be formed.
(7) Improving the big data industry chain. Enterprises shall be supported in providing big data-based third-party data analysis and mining services, technology outsourcing services, and knowledge process outsourcing services. Enterprises shall be encouraged to actively develop Internet finance, mobile finance, and other new business types according to their data resource bases and business characteristics. The deep integration of big data with mobile Internet, the Internet of things and cloud computing shall be promoted, the innovative application of big data in various industries shall be deepened, and active exploration shall be made to innovate on the collaborative and win-win application modes and business models. The big data application innovation capacity shall be strengthened, and a big data industry system under which governments, enterprises, universities, research institutions, and users interact with each other, and small, medium, and large enterprises develop coordinately shall be established. Efforts shall be made to establish and improved the public service support system for the big data industry shall be established and improved, form a big data open source community and industry alliance, promote the collaborative innovation, accelerate the construction of big data industry quality technical infrastructures such as measurement, standardization, inspection and testing, certification, and accreditation, among others, and speed up the popularization of big data applications.
Column 9 Big Data Industry Support Capability Enhancement Project
Cultivation of backbone enterprises. The policy system shall be improved, and more efforts shall be made to create a favorable atmosphere with excellent service environment and low factor costs, and cultivate leading and backbone big data enterprises. The leading role of backbone enterprises shall be maximized, and a big data industry ecosystem with mutual support and collaborative cooperation between mall, medium and large enterprises. By 2020, ten core world leading big data enterprises and 500 big data application and service providers and product manufacturers will be cultivated.
Public services for the big data industry. Quality public service resources shall be integrated and huge amounts of data resources shall be aggregated, so as to form a public service platform for big data-oriented fields to provide enterprises and users with public services such as research and development, design, industrialization of technologies, human resources, marketing, assessment and evaluation, certification and accreditation, inspection and testing, publicity and exhibition, application and promotion, industry consulting, investment and financing, and education and training, among others.
Big data-based public services for small and micro enterprises. The existing public service systems for micro, small and medium enterprises and the data resources thereof shall be integrated, and the online public service management systems for micro, small and medium enterprises that have been completely established in all provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government) shall be linked with each other, so as to form a national unified public service big data platform for micro, small and medium enterprises to provide micro, small and medium enterprises with various public services such as technology services, integrated services, business services.
3. Strengthening security guarantee, improving management level, and promoting healthy development.
(1) Improving the big data security guarantee system. The research on network security issues in a big data environment and the big data-based research on network security technologies shall be strengthened, the information security classified protection rules, risk assessment rules and other network security rules shall be implemented, and a big data security guarantee system shall be established and improved. A big data security assessment system shall be established. The security protection of critical information infrastructure shall be effectively strengthened, and the reliability and safety evaluation, application security evaluation, monitoring and early warning, and risk assessment of big data platforms and service providers shall be effectively conducted. The scopes, responsible parties, and specific requirements of network security guarantee in such aspects as collection, transmission, storage, use, and opening of data shall be specified, and the protection of information relating to national interests, public security, commercial secrets, personal privacy, scientific research, and manufacturing of military products shall be effectively strengthened. The relationship between the development of innovation and the guarantee of security shall be properly handled, and supervision should be conducted prudentially and innovation should be protected; the confidentiality management rules and measures shall be explored and improved, and the security of data shall be effectively guaranteed.
(2) Strengthening security support. Secure and reliable products and services shall be adopted, and the security and reliability level of critical equipment used for infrastructure shall be enhanced. A platform for aggregation, sharing and correlation analysis of national cyber security information shall be established, the integration and reasonable allocation of data and resources relating to network security, and the capability of emergency response to major network security incidents shall be enhanced; the building of the network security protection system and the situational awareness capability shall be deepened, and the protection of security in cyberspace and the recognition of security incidents shall be enhanced. Safety monitoring and early warning notification shall be conducted, and the building of anti-attack, anti-leak, and anti-theft monitoring, early warning, control and emergency response capabilities in a big data environment shall be strengthened.
Column 10 Network and Big Data Security Guarantee Project
Building a support system for network and big data security. Secure and reliable products and services shall be adopted in areas relating to national security and stability, and by 2020, full security and reliability in critical equipment used by all key departments shall be achieved. The network security protection system shall be improved.
Building a protection system for big data security. The scopes, responsible parties, and specific requirements of network security guarantee in such aspects as collection, transmission, storage, use, and opening of data shall be specified, and a protection system for security and confidentiality of important data resources and information systems in such fields as finance, energy, transportation, telecommunications, statistics, radio, film and television, public safety and public utilities shall be established and improved.
Building a big data support system for sharing of cyber security information and identification of major risks. The timely recognition and effective prevention of new technologies and new methods threatening network security shall be realized through the follow-up and analysis for the characters, methods, and modes of network security threats. The integration of resources and the sharing of information shall be strengthened, a networking security information sharing mechanism shall be established, cyber risk information sharing among governments, industries and enterprises shall be promoted, and big data analysis shall be utilized in the early warning, judging, and response command of major network security incidents.
IV. Policies and mechanisms
1. Improving the organization and implementation mechanisms. A national overall coordination mechanism for the development and application of bid data shall be established, and the formation of a working pattern featuring clear duties and collaborative promotion shall be promoted. Research on the major issues of big data shall be strengthened, the development and issuance of supporting policies shall be accelerated, and the overall management of national data resources shall be enhanced. The synergy between relevant policies and plans for big data and those for Internet of Things, smart cities, and cloud computing shall be strengthened. The coordination between central and local authorities shall be strengthened, the local governments at all levels shall be guided in reasonably positioning themselves and making scientific plans in light of their own conditions, including the development of big data in their local economic and social development and urbanization development plans, developing and issuing policies and measures for promoting the development of the big data industry, highlighting their local characteristics and division of duties, and effectively implementing the relevant measures, so as to achieve scientific and orderly development. A big data expert advisory committee f shall be established to provide decision-making advice on the development and application of big data and the implementation of relevant projects. All relevant departments shall further unify their thoughts, conscientiously implement all tasks specified in this Action Outline, and jointly promote the formation of a sound pattern for the sharing of public information resources and the healthy and safe development of the big data industry.
2. Accelerating the development of laws and regulations. The Revision on the Disclosure of Government Information shall be revised. The rules in such aspects as the opening and protection of data shall be actively researched, the standardized management for the collection, transmission, storage, use, and opening of data resources shall be realized, government data shall be promoted to be opened, to the greatest extent possible, under the principle of controllable risks, and the authority and scope of the governments in the use of big data from market players shall be specified. The measures for the administration of government information resources shall be developed, and an overall management, sharing and reuse system for the data resources of the government departments shall be established. Legislation on online personal information protection shall be researched and promoted, the scope and method of collection and application of personal data shall be defined, the rights, responsibilities and obligations of relevant parties shall be specified, the management and punishment of such acts as misuse of data, and infringement on personal privacy shall be strengthened. The issuance of relevant laws and regulations shall be promoted, the security protection for basic information networks and important information systems in critical industries shall be strengthened, and the security of network data shall be guaranteed. The relevant legislation on the rights and interests for data resources shall be researched and promoted.
3. Improving the market development mechanisms. A market-oriented mechanism for data application shall be established, and the social capital shall be supported in participating in public service construction on the premise of protecting fair competition. The governments shall be encouraged to cooperate with enterprises and social organizations in the application of big data and the reduction of social management costs by relying on specialized enterprises through such multiple means as government procurement, service outsourcing, and crowd sourcing. Efforts shall be made to guide the cultivation of a big data trading market, conduct the pilot program of the application-oriented data trading market, explore to conduct big data-related derivative transactions, encourage market players in the all links of the industrial chain to engage in the exchange and trading of data, promote the flow of data resources, establish and improve the trading and pricing mechanisms of data resources, and regulate relevant transactions.
4. Establishing a system of relevant standards and specifications. The building of a big data industry standard system shall be promoted, the establishment of data standard and statistical standard systems of government departments, public institutions and other public institutions shall be accelerated, and the development and implementation of key generic standards for data collection, open government data, indicators, classified catalogues, exchange interfaces, access interfaces, data quality, data trading, technology products, security and confidentiality shall be promoted. The establishment of the big data market trading standard system shall be accelerated. The verification of relevant standards and the pilot and demonstration programs of relevant applications shall be conducted, a system for assessment on the conformity of standards shall be established, and the role of standards in such aspects as the cultivation of service markets, improvement of service capabilities, and support for industry management shall be maximized. The initiative shall be taken in participating in the development of relevant international standards.
5. Increasing the fiscal and financial support. The guidance for the funds of the central finance shall be strengthened, and efforts shall be concentrated on supporting the resolution of problems in core and key big data technologies, formation of industrial chains, demonstration of major applications and building of public service platforms, among others. The existing access to capital shall be utilized to promote the construction of a group of leading major demonstration projects in the world. The supporting policies on big data services for government procurement shall be improved and more support shall be given to the cooperation of government departments and enterprises in the development of big data. Financial institutions shall be encouraged to strengthen and improve financial services, and more support shall be given to big data enterprises. Big data enterprises shall be encouraged to raise funds in the capital markets, and efforts shall be made to create a more relaxed monetary policy environment for the restructuring, merger and acquisition of enterprises. Venture capital funds shall be supported in investing in the big data industry, and the establishment of a group of venture capital funds with investments in the big data industry shall be encouraged.
6. Strengthening the training of professionals. The mode of talent training shall be innovated, and a multi-level, multi-type system for training of big data talents shall be established and improved. The institutions of high learning shall be encouraged to set up relevant specialties such as data science and data engineering, with focus on training specialized data engineers and other big data professionals. The institutions of high learning shall be encouraged to carry out the training of multi-disciplinary comprehensive talents by such means as joint training. The cross-boundary, multi-disciplinary talents with knowledge of statistical analysis, computer technology, economic management and other majors shall be vigorously trained. The institutions of high learning and vocational colleges shall be encouraged to cooperate with enterprises, so as to strengthen the practical training of vocational skilled talents and actively cultivate innovative talents in big data technology and application. By relying on social education resources, the popularization, education, and training of big data-related knowledge shall be carried out, the overall awareness and application level of the society for big data shall be improved.
7. Promoting international exchanges and cooperation. The principles of equality, cooperation, mutual benefit and win-win result shall be adhered to, mechanisms for international cooperation shall be established and improved, international exchanges and cooperation in big data technology shall be actively promoted, and international innovation resources shall be fully utilized, so as to promote the development of big data-related technologies. According to the needs for the innovation on the application of big data, high-level talents and leading talents in the big data field shall be actively introduced, supporting measures shall be improved, and overseas high-end talents shall be encouraged to return to China for employment and business startups. Domestic enterprises shall be guided in strengthening cooperation with international strength enterprises in the research and development of key big data technologies and products, and domestic enterprises shall be supported in participating in competition in the global market, actively exploring the international market, so as to form a group of big data enterprises and products with international competitiveness.